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Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease affecting millions of people world wide. Standard treatment is failing to achieve required correction of blood glucose in many patients. Therefore, there is a need for investigating potential hypoglycemic drugs or herbs to improve glycemic control in diabetic patients. Nigella sativa seeds were used as an adjuvant therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 added to their anti-diabetic medications. A total of 94 patient were recruited and divided randomly into three dose groups. Capsules containing Nigella sativa were administered orally in a dose of 1, 2 and 3 gm/day for three months. The effect of Nigella sativa on the glycemic control was assessed through measurement of fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood glucose level 2 hours postprandially (2 hPG), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Serum C-peptide and changes in body weight were also measured. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were calculated usin the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA2). Nigella sativa at a dose of 2 gm/day caused significant reductions in FBG, 2hPG, and HbA1 without significant change in body weight. Fasting blood glucose was reduced by an average of 45, 62 and 56 mg/dl at 4, 8 and 12 weeks respectively. HbAlC was reduced by 1.52% at the end of the 12 weeks of treatment (P<0.0001). Insulin resistance calculated by HOMA2 was reduced significantly (P<0.01), while B-cell function was increased (P<0.02) at 12 weeks of treatment. The use of Nigella sativa in a dose of 1 gm/day also showed trends in improvement in all the measured parameters but it was not statistically significant from the baseline. However, no further increment in the beneficial response was observed with the 3 gm/day dose. The three doses of Nigella sativa used in the study did not adversely affect either renal functions or hepatic functions of the diabetic patients throughout the study period.
The results of this study indicate that a dose of 2 gm/ day of Nigella sativa might be a beneficial adjuvant to oral hypoglycemic agents in type 2 diabetic patients.
Diabetes mellitus results in severe metabolic imbalances and pathological changes in many tissues. Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the etiology of diabetes and diabetic complications. Diabetics exhibit high-oxidative stress due to persistent and chronic hyperglycemia, thereby reducing the activity of the antioxidative defense system and thus promoting free radical generation.
Black seed oil may be of some benefit to people with diabetes, according to an animal-based study published in Planta Medica in 2002. In tests on diabetic rats, the study's authors found that black seed oil may help lower blood sugar levels.
Several interactive pathogenetic mechanisms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy have been identified in both human and murine models and persistent hyperglycaemia has been regarded as a primary risk factor for neuropathy. Long-term hyperglycaemia can lead to subsequent enhanced oxidative stress, increased aldose reductase activity, and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). As a result, it could induce progressive damage to the peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous systems. To date, except for rigorous glycaemic control, there are few means to affect or slow the natural progression of diabetic peripheral neuropathy owing to limitations of the current and often inadequate drug therapy.
|Video Source Credit: Diabetes UK - diabetes.org.uk|
Total: 25.8 million children and adults in the United States—8.3% of the population—have diabetes.
Diagnosed: 18.8 million people
Undiagnosed: 7.0 million people
Prediabetes: 79 million people*
New Cases: 1.9 million new cases of diabetes are diagnosed in people aged 20 years and older in 2010.
* In contrast to the 2007 National Diabetes Fact Sheet, which used fasting glucose data to estimate undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes, the 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet uses both fasting glucose and A1C levels to derive estimates for undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes. These tests were chosen because they are most frequently used in clinical practice.